He must be allowed to decide for himself

به چند جمله زیر توجه کنید و ببینید ساختار تکرار شده در این جملات چیست:

He must be allowed to decide for himself.

The food is supposed to be great here.

I am not able to stay.

عبارت مشترکی که در همه جملات تکرار شده چنین الگویی دارد:

‘be’ + infinitive

عباراتی مانند ‘be allowed to’, ‘be supposed to’, ‘be able to’ جز رایج‌ترین عبارات با این الگو هستند.

What? Cops aren’t allowed to do that, either.

Hey, you’re not allowed to say mean things.

First of all, if you are allowed to go out of the building in your break, you should do it.

Perhaps you will be allowed to go on holiday with your friends next year.

The film is supposed to start at 7.00 pm so we’d better meet at 6.30 pm. See you there!

I was supposed to be meeting my friend Laura but she didn’t come.

I am sorry but I am not able to meet you next Tuesday.

We were able to choose the songs ourselves and so I liked them very much.

صحبت درباره اجازه انجام کاری (PERMISSION) با be allowed to

همانطور که از نمونه جملات بالا می‌توان فهمید، اگر بخواهیم از اجازه داشتن صحبت کنیم، این عبارت به ما در انتقال چنین مفهومی کمک می‌کند:

My mother went with me on this trip because I wasn’t allowed to go by myself.

You won’t be allowed to do what you want and you won’t enjoy yourself.

صحبت درباره اجازه انتظار و توقع (EXPECTATION) با be supposed to

این عبارت هم غالباً برای صحبت در مورد انتظاری در گذشته یا آینده است که ممکن است اتفاق نیفتاده باشد یا در آینده تغییر کند.


I am really sorry, but I will have to make some changes to my trip. I was supposed to arrive on 11th June 2003, but I will arrive the next month.

It was supposed to be on Tuesday at 1.00pm.

We were supposed to meet at noon with some friends, but they called her to ask if we could meet at the restaurant.

صحبت درباره اجازه انتظار و توقع (EXPECTATION) با be able to

این الگو، به ویژه دو مورد ‘was able to’ و ‘were able to’ برای صحبت در مورد حقایق و فکت‌هایی در گذشته به کار می‌روند.

She was able to get a good seat and she unexpectedly got to school early.

sales had increased recently because of the good performance of our staff so we were able to improve the quality of our products … ”

تمرین

برای هر کدام از سه مورد ‘be allowed to’, ‘be supposed to’, ‘be able to’ یک مثال واقعی بر اساس چیزی که مایل هستید بیان کنید، بزنید.

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  1. I was not allowed to go to the club alone and had to go with my girlfriend.
    و
    I am not able to easily talk to my boss and say that I want to resign from my job.
    و
    I was supposed to get my degree at the end of this semester, but maybe next semester I can graduate.

  2. You are allowed to camp overnight at the summit so that you can see the sunrise.
    We are supposed to reach the mountaintop by 5 AM to catch the first rays of the sunrise.
    If the weather remains clear, we will be able to enjoy a spectacular view of the sunrise from the mountain.

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