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درس ۱, موضوع ۱
در حال پیشرفت

علتهای ADHD

Neurobiology of ADHD
• Neurochemical, neurophysiological, and/or neuroanatomical abnormalities in
the pre-frontal-limbic areas of the brain
Possible causes
• Genetic transmission
• Prenatal and birth complications
• Neurological illness or injury

ADHD runs in families
• If a child has ADHD
◦ ۱۵–۲۰% of mothers
◦ ۲۵–۳۰% of fathers
◦ ۲۵% of siblings
◦ ۳۰–۴۰% fraternal twin, 70% + identical twin
• If a parent has ADHD
◦ ۵۰% risk for the child
Genetic markers
• Many genes linked to ADHD identified – not just one gene
• Many of these genes associated with dopamine system
• Our understanding of the genetics of ADHD is far from complete

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