خلاصه کردن متن انگلیسی با chatGPT

احتمالاً مخفف TLDR را دیده‌اید. به دو شکل tl;dr, tldr هم نوشته می‌شود. این مخفف، به معنی too long; didn’t read است و به معنی این است که متن مورداشاره، بیش از حد طولانی است به همین دلیل آن را نخواندم. در واقع یک کنایه شبیه این ویدئوی رضا عطاران است که در سالیان اخیر viral شده است:

رایج شدن مخفف TLDR یا میم‌های مشابه، هم نشان می‌دهد که چقدر سر و کار داشتن با متن‌های طولانی رایج و دشوار شده است.

در این نوشته قصد داریم، نحوه خلاصه کردن چنین متن‌های طولانی‌ای را یاد بگیریم.

گفتیم یکی از چهار بخش اصلی یک پرامپت، مشخص کردن تسک و دستورالعمل پرامپت است. یکی از رایج‌ترین دستورالعمل‌ها به ویژه برای ماست که دغدغه یادگیری زبان انگلیسی و همچنین خواندن و گوش کردن داریم، “خلاصه سازی” یا summarization است.

در زمانه‌ای که پردازش کردن یک میلیاردم اطلاعاتی که در دسترس ماست، به هزاران سال نیاز دارد، توانایی خلاصه کردن متن کمک زیادی به ما خواهد کرد.

فرض کنید می‌خواهیم یک مقاله یا یک فصل از یک کتاب یا هر متن دیگری را خلاصه کنیم. به عنوان مثال ما متن پادکست ۲۰۰ دقیقه‌ای زیر را در نظر می‌گیریم:

Dr. James Hollis: How to Find Your True Purpose & Create Your Best Life

متن آن را از منابع مختلف مانند پادکست بالا یا یوتیوب می‌توانیم استخراج کنیم.

اولین پرامپتی که به ذهن می‌رسد چنین چیزی است:

summerize <<TEXT>>

متن موردنظر را بین دو حائل مانند گیومه یا آکولاد قرار می‌دهیم (استفاده از delimiters برای تفکیک ورودی پرامپت)

چنین خروجی دریافت خواهیم کرد:

خروجی پرامپت بالا (کلیک کنید)

The discussion reflects on the significant societal changes since the 1960s, highlighting how oppressive norms were challenged, leading to greater freedom and inclusivity but also causing some discomfort and backlash due to increased ambiguity. The internet and social media have popularized psychological terms, often leading to misuse and trivialization of genuine mental health issues. Effective diagnosis requires careful observation over time, which the internet often lacks.

Therapists must differentiate between types of depression and other pathologies, with a focus on whether they are reactive, biologically driven, or intrapsychic. Life’s inevitable periods of intense suffering, metaphorically described as “swamplands,” demand personal accountability and the search for meaning and self-worth.

Building on Erikson’s stages of development, the discussion emphasizes the challenges and tasks of adulthood, particularly the conflicts between despair and integrity as we age. Accepting our mortality gives life meaning, compelling us to make meaningful choices and embrace a larger sense of self beyond the ego.

Ultimately, living a meaningful life involves continuous self-reflection, courage, and the willingness to face uncomfortable truths. Asking large questions and embracing life’s tasks with integrity and purpose is key to navigating the complexities of existence.

می‌توانیم خلاصه متن‌ها و کتابهای معروف را هم به همین روش از chatGPT بخواهیم:

give a summary of a tale of two cities   

اما این پرامپت کارآمد نیست. پرامپت زیر خروجی بسیار بهتری به ما می‌دهد:

Article: "[ARTICLE]"

You will generate increasingly concise, entity-dense summaries of the above article.

Repeat the following 2 steps 5 times.
Step 1. Identify 1-3 informative entities (";" delimited) from the article that are missing from the previously generated summary.
Step 2. Write a new, denser summary of identical length which covers every entity and detail from the previous summary plus the missing entities.

A missing entity is:
- Relevant to the main story,
- Specific yet concise (5 words or fewer),
- Novel (not in the previous summary),
- Faithful (present in the article),
- Anywhere (can be located anywhere in the article).

Guidelines:
- The first summary should be long (4-5 sentences, ~80 words) yet highly non-specific, containing little information beyond the entities marked as missing. Use overly verbose language and fillers (e.g., "this article discusses") to reach ~80 words.
- Make every word count: rewrite the previous summary to improve flow and make space for additional entities.
- Make space with fusion, compression, and removal of uninformative phrases like "the article discusses".
- The summaries should become highly dense and concise yet self-contained, i.e., easily understood without the article.
- Missing entities can appear anywhere in the new summary.
- Never drop entities from the previous summary. If space cannot be made, add fewer new entities.

Remember, use the exact same number of words for each summary.

به جای ARTICLE باید مقاله موردنظر خود را بین delimiters یا حامل قرار دهیم.

می‌توانیم بخشهای مختلف این پرامپت را بر اساس نیاز و هدفی که داریم تغییر دهیم.

خروجی این پرامپت برای متن پادکست بالا به این صورت است:

خروجی پرامپت

Step 1: Missing Entities: Erikson’s stages of development; Schizophrenia; Narcissism

Summary 1: This article discusses significant societal changes since the 1960s, emphasizing how norms were challenged, leading to increased freedom but also discomfort and backlash due to ambiguity. It highlights the misuse of psychological terms on social media, which trivializes genuine mental health issues. Effective diagnosis requires careful observation over time, which the internet lacks. Therapists must differentiate between types of depression, focusing on whether they are reactive, biologically driven, or intrapsychic. The discussion also touches on Erikson’s stages of development and the challenges of adulthood, especially regarding despair and integrity as we age. Accepting mortality gives life meaning, driving us to make meaningful choices and embrace a larger sense of self beyond the ego. Living a meaningful life involves self-reflection, courage, and the willingness to face uncomfortable truths.


Step 1: Missing Entities: Life stages; Cultural influences

Summary 2: Since the 1960s, societal changes have challenged norms, leading to increased freedom but also discomfort and backlash due to ambiguity. Misuse of psychological terms on social media trivializes genuine mental health issues. Effective diagnosis requires careful observation over time, which the internet lacks. Therapists must differentiate types of depression, focusing on reactive, biologically driven, or intrapsychic causes. The discussion includes Erikson’s stages of development, life stages, and the challenges of adulthood, particularly despair and integrity as we age. Accepting mortality gives life meaning, driving meaningful choices and a larger sense of self beyond the ego. Cultural influences impact our journey toward self-reflection, courage, and facing uncomfortable truths.


Step 1: Missing Entities: Accountability; Personal growth

Summary 3: Societal changes since the 1960s have challenged norms, increasing freedom but also causing discomfort and backlash due to ambiguity. Misuse of psychological terms on social media trivializes genuine mental health issues. Effective diagnosis requires careful observation over time, which the internet lacks. Therapists must differentiate depression types: reactive, biologically driven, or intrapsychic. The discussion covers Erikson’s stages of development, life stages, and adulthood challenges, particularly despair and integrity as we age. Accepting mortality gives life meaning, driving meaningful choices and a larger sense of self beyond the ego. Cultural influences impact our journey toward self-reflection, accountability, personal growth, and facing uncomfortable truths.


Step 1: Missing Entities: Internet influence; Emotional abuse

Summary 4: Since the 1960s, societal changes have challenged norms, increasing freedom but causing discomfort and backlash due to ambiguity. Misuse of psychological terms on social media trivializes genuine mental health issues. Effective diagnosis requires careful observation over time, which the internet lacks. Therapists must differentiate depression types: reactive, biologically driven, or intrapsychic. The discussion includes Erikson’s stages of development, life stages, and adulthood challenges, particularly despair and integrity as we age. Accepting mortality gives life meaning, driving meaningful choices and a larger sense of self beyond the ego. Cultural influences and internet influence impact our journey toward self-reflection, accountability, personal growth, and facing emotional abuse and uncomfortable truths.


Step 1: Missing Entities: Neurochemical basis; Pathology

Summary 5: Societal changes since the 1960s challenged norms, increasing freedom but causing discomfort and backlash due to ambiguity. Misuse of psychological terms on social media trivializes genuine mental health issues. Effective diagnosis requires careful observation over time, which the internet lacks. Therapists must differentiate depression types: reactive, biologically driven, or intrapsychic. The discussion covers Erikson’s stages of development, life stages, and adulthood challenges, particularly despair and integrity as we age. Accepting mortality gives life meaning, driving meaningful choices and a larger sense of self beyond the ego. Cultural influences and internet influence impact our journey toward self-reflection, accountability, personal growth, facing emotional abuse, neurochemical basis of pathology, and uncomfortable truths.

این پرامپت بر اساس یک تکنیک پرامپتینگ هست به نام Chain of Density (+)

مشخص کردن خروجی

گاهی ممکن است حجم خلاصه، مورد دلخواه ما نباشد. در چنین مواردی می‌توانیم اندازه آن را بر اساس مواردی مانند کلمه یا پارگراف به chatGPT بگوییم.

Can you provide a [number]-word summary of [title], considering [target audience]?

Can you provide a 100-word summary of the history of Europe, considering a general audience?

مثال (کلیک کنید)

Can you provide a 50-word summary of the TV show Two and a Half Men, considering general viewership?
■ Can you provide a 100-word summary of the basics of computer science, considering high
school students?
■ Can you provide a 75-word summary of the differences between solar and coal energy sources,
considering an environmentally conscious audience?
■ Can you provide a 30-word summary of the following text [insert text], considering it’s for a social
media post?
■ Can you provide a 60-word summary of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, considering a book club
discussion?

Can you provide a 40-word summary of the main principles of the Agile methodology, considering
project managers unfamiliar with the approach?
■ Can you provide a 60-word summary of “The Lean Startup”, considering aspiring entrepreneurs?
■ Can you provide a 80-word summary of “Pride and
Prejudice”, considering book club members?
■ Can you provide a 70-word summary of “The Innovator’s Dilemma”, considering business managers?
■ Can you provide a 100-word summary of “Crime and Punishment”, considering college literature students?

در این آینده انواع دیگر خلاصه سازی را بررسی می‌کنیم:

خلاصه سازی لینک

به جای دادن متن، می‌توانیم لینک یک مقاله را به مدل زبانی مان بدهیم تا آن را بررسی کند و خروجی آن را به ما بدهد.

خلاصه فایل

می‌توانم فایل pdf یا فرمتهای رایج دیگر مانند کتاب و مقاله را هم آپلود کنیم تا آن را خلاصه کند.

خلاصه سازی کتاب

برای برخی کتاب‌ها ممکن است چنین پرامپت‌هایی کار ما را راه بیندازند:

`Write me a detailed summary of the book - [Insert Book Name]`
`Write me a chapter-wise summary of the book - [Insert Book Name]`
`Write 10 key lessons from the book - [Insert Book Name]`
`Rewrite each lesson under 20 words`

برای مثال اگر تازه اسم یک کتاب را شنیده‌ایم، می‌توانیم چنین پرامپتی را امتحان کنیم:

Write me a detailed summary of the book "Thus Spoke Zarathustra"

خروجی پرامپت بالا (کلیک کنید)

“Thus Spoke Zarathustra” is a philosophical novel by Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in four parts between 1883 and 1885. It presents Nietzsche’s philosophical ideas through the narrative of Zarathustra (or Zoroaster), a prophet who descends from his mountain retreat to impart wisdom to humanity.

Summary

Prologue

The book begins with Zarathustra, who has spent ten years in solitude on a mountain, deciding to come down and share his insights with the world. He meets a saint in the forest who warns him that people do not need his teachings. Zarathustra, undeterred, proceeds to a town where he delivers his first speech, introducing the concept of the Übermensch (Overman or Superman). He criticizes the masses for their complacency and urges them to overcome their base nature and strive for higher existence.

Part One

In this part, Zarathustra delivers a series of speeches on various themes:

  • The Three Metamorphoses: Zarathustra describes the transformation of the spirit from a camel (bearing the weight of traditions), to a lion (rebelling against these traditions), to a child (embracing new creation).
  • The Despisers of the Body: He argues against those who denigrate the physical body in favor of the soul, emphasizing the unity of body and spirit.
  • Joyful Wisdom: Zarathustra promotes the idea of living joyfully and embracing life’s challenges as opportunities for growth.
  • The Way of the Creating One: He speaks about the importance of creativity and self-overcoming.

Part Two

Zarathustra continues his teachings, focusing on deeper aspects of human existence:

  • The Child with the Mirror: He discusses self-reflection and the need for individuals to understand themselves.
  • On the Pitying: Zarathustra criticizes pity, advocating for strength and self-reliance instead.
  • The Tarantulas: He condemns those who seek revenge and equality out of ressentiment (deep-seated resentment).
  • The Stillest Hour: Zarathustra experiences a profound inner struggle, representing the solitude and difficulty of the philosophical journey.

Part Three

This part delves into more complex and abstract themes:

  • The Vision and the Riddle: Zarathustra recounts a dream-like vision that presents the eternal recurrence, the idea that all events in life will repeat infinitely.
  • The Convalescent: He reflects on his own recovery from nihilism, emphasizing the need to affirm life despite its inherent suffering.
  • The Great Noon: Zarathustra speaks of a future time when humanity will overcome itself and achieve greatness.

Part Four

In the final part, Zarathustra deals with the culmination of his teachings:

  • The Welcome: Zarathustra is visited by various followers, each representing different aspects of humanity’s struggle toward the Übermensch.
  • The Ass Festival: A parody of Christian rituals, this chapter critiques blind faith and herd mentality.
  • The Sleepwalker Song: Zarathustra expresses his ultimate vision of humanity’s potential for greatness and the eternal recurrence.

Key Themes

  1. Übermensch (Overman/Superman): Central to Zarathustra’s teachings is the concept of the Übermensch, a being who has transcended the limitations of conventional morality and human weakness to create new values.
  2. Eternal Recurrence: The idea that life’s events repeat infinitely, which serves as a test of one’s ability to affirm life fully.
  3. Will to Power: The driving force behind human behavior, seen as the fundamental will to assert and enhance one’s existence.
  4. Critique of Religion and Morality: Nietzsche, through Zarathustra, critiques traditional religious beliefs and moral systems, advocating for a revaluation of values.

Style and Structure

“Thus Spoke Zarathustra” is written in a poetic and often allegorical style, drawing heavily on religious and mythological imagery. It is structured as a series of discourses and parables, interspersed with philosophical reflections.

Influence and Legacy

The book is considered one of Nietzsche’s most important works and has had a profound impact on modern philosophy, literature, and psychology. Its ideas challenge readers to rethink conventional values and embrace a more dynamic and self-determined approach to life.

Conclusion

“Thus Spoke Zarathustra” is a profound and challenging text that explores deep philosophical questions about human existence, morality, and the potential for greatness. It remains a seminal work in Nietzsche’s oeuvre and a touchstone for existential and postmodern thought.

یک راه دیگر این است که خلاصه کتاب را از ویکی‌پدیا یا سایتهای خلاصه کتاب به chatGPT بدهیم و از اون بخواهیم که خلاصه آن را به ما بدهد:

Please write an in-depth summary of the book Principles by Ray Dalio, drawing on the excerpts from the book below:

[Pasted my excerpts from book or link]

اما اگر قصد مان مطالعه جدی است، خلاصه کردن کتاب یا هر متن حجیم دیگری، با چنین پرامپت‌های ساده‌ای هوشمندانه نیست. ما در جای دیگری به این موضوع می‌پردازیم و طبق یک پروسه گام به گام خلاصه سازی از chatGPT یا ابزارهای مشابه برای خواندن کتاب کمک می‌گیریم:

خواندن کتاب با chatGPT یا مدل‌های زبانی هوش مصنوعی

تمرین

یک متن را طبق پرامپت بالا به chatGPT یا مدل زبانی تان بدهید و یک خلاصه کوتاه (۴-۵ خطی) از آن را اینجا کامنت کنید.

توضیحات لازم در مورد متن اولیه را هم بیان کنید.

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